Yunnan Agreement 1957
The Chinese wanted the bomb and enthusiastically participated in research at the new Soviet Joint Institute for Nuclear Studies in Dubna, near Moscow, founded in 1955. From 1955 to 1958, the Soviets and Chinese signed six related treaties to promote China`s nuclear science, industry, and weapons program. They collaborated in uranium mining and production, physics development, education of Chinese students in nuclear physics in the Soviet Union, use of nuclear energy, and construction of a heavy water research reactor, cyclotron and particle accelerator in China.  Cooperation should include the transfer of the bomb itself to China. Supreme Soviet Union President Kliment Voroshilov visited China in April 1957, and on October 15, 1957, the two sides agreed on the new defense technical agreement. Field Marshal Nie Rongzhen and his deputies Chen Geng and Song Renqiong went to Moscow to clarify the terms of the exchange.  The Soviets were to provide the Chinese with a prototype of the atomic bomb, missiles and related defense technology.  A military delegation led by Defense Minister Field Marshal Peng Dehuai spent a month in Moscow after the Conference of Socialist Parties in November 1957. The two sides have sought to coordinate and normalize weapons production and communication systems, and to promote education and training.  Dokumen ini, jikapun benar ada dan bukan tipuan, terdiri dari delapan halaman, ditandatangani pada tahun 1957, ditandatangani oleh Herr Soekarno (Präsidium pertama Indonesia) dan Herr Mao Tse Tung (perdana menteri China saat itu). However, the Soviets hesitated to deliver the bomb itself, and the subsequent joint exchange of the Ministry of Defense became increasingly difficult. In the spring of 1958, Khrushchev bluntly informed Zhou Enlai, without any interest in any discussion, of the Soviet decision to pursue disarmament and arms control agreements with the United States and England.
 The formal abrogation of the Sino-Soviet Agreement on Military-Technological Cooperation was announced on June 20, 1959. In an effort to comfort Chinese, Soviet and Eastern European officials, they repeatedly stressed the importance of the «nuclear umbrella» offered by Soviet ownership of the bomb. «The invaders of China are also invaders of the Soviet Union,» Khrushchev tried to assure them in September 1958.  However, the Chinese were not convinced, and disputes over strategic cooperation and the bomb contributed to the unfolding of the split. They continued their nuclear development efforts after the withdrawal of the bloc`s advisers in the summer of 1960 and detonated their own bomb at Lop Nor in Xinjiang in October 1964. This achievement would have been «impossible» without the previous history of Soviet aid, notes Zhihua Shen.  The general problems and tensions that characterize the Alliance are reflected in these documents on Sino-Soviet defence cooperation. The head of the Chinese delegation, Qian Xuesen, was one of the main leaders of Chinese rocket development research, earning a PhD in physics at the California Institute of Technology and working at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California.  Such a context obviously allowed him to ask comparative questions about the strengths and weaknesses of Soviet programs. This was a constantly sensitive issue, which was reflected in the routine questions that the Chinese asked Soviet advisers in many areas of exchange.
 Above all, «former Chinese technical workers» often questioned the authority of Soviet experts in China.  Money and the financing of the exchange were another sensitive issue that had been controversial since the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Alliance in Moscow in February 1950.  The importance and necessity of Chinese «autonomy» became increasingly important to many senior officials as relations developed, but in many practical matters, the Chinese simply preferred to import finished products and ready-made technologies. .