Brexit Draft Withdrawal Agreement
The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.  In this briefing, the withdrawal agreement negotiated between the EU and the UK and concluded on 14 November 2018 will be discussed in detail. It was approved by the heads of state and government of EU Member States at an extraordinary European Council on 25 November, and the British Prime Minister did so in the British Parliament and across the country. The agreement has been the subject of in-depth discussions in Parliament on several occasions and has been adopted three times. But the House of Commons did not accept it. A second extension of Article 50 lasted until 31 October 2019, but once again the UK faces the possibility of leaving the EU without a deal if the agreement or any other agreement is not ratified by the UK and the EU. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows.
The British Parliament must proceed with two authorisation procedures before the UK can ratify the withdrawal agreement. Both the EU Law (Withdrawal Act 2018) and the Constitutional Reform Act 2010 and the Governance Act (CRAG) are obstacles to the UK`s ability to ratify the negotiated agreement. The Withdrawal Act also provides for parliamentary procedure in the event of a rejection of an agreement by the House of Commons or if a negotiated agreement is ever reached. After the WAB becomes law, the withdrawal agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament. The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which will last until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies.